How to make homemade Solar Water Heater
Homemade solar water heater is an easy DIY project that uses solar energy for heating water. In this project we will make solar water heater by using homemade things like wood, aluminium pipe, aluminium sheet, thermcool and transparent sheet.
In winter we generally need warm water for bathing and washing which is usually done by electric or gas geyser. The usage of these geysers not only increase the utility charges but they also have negative impact on our environment. In Pakistan we generally face gas load shedding in winters due to its increased consumption in residential areas. The traditional geysers are not only expensive but their running cost is also high. Solar heating is one of the promising solution which can be found with varying capacity (400-100 liters per day) but they are very expensive i.e. about 30,000 PKR which is not affordable to many. Homemade solar water heater is not only cost effective but it is also energy efficient.
Watch Video Tutorial of homemade Solar Water Heater (Urdu) @pakscienceclub
The specifications of it as per experiment are as following:
Working Principle of Homemade Solar heater
Unlike other solar geysers, it does not contain solar panels for its working. It simply concentrates solar radiation on metal pipe in which the water is flowing. The temperature also escalates due to the metal sheet at the back side of pipes. Transparent plastic sheet cover at the top provides green house effect to trap the heat inside and consequently increasing the temperature of water. The metal surface is rough and dull so to avoid reflection and of black color to maximize the absorption of heat energy from sun. Aluminum pipes are also painted with black as it can absorb all types of radiations and best suited for increasing temperature.
General Specifications of Home made Solar geyser
- Average capacity: Approximately 720 liters per day
- Temperature range: 30-60 degree Centigrade
- Cost: PKR 3500
- Best time to use: 10am to 2pm
- Ambient temperature: 25 degree Centigrade
- Initial Water temperature: 16 degree Centigrade
- Final temperature: 60 degree Centigrade
- Flow rate of water: 2 liter per minute
Required Material for Homemade Solar heater
- Wooden strip (2×3/4 inch) for making frame: 12 ft
- Wooden strip (1×1 inch) for support: 6 ft
- Aluminum metal pipe (10 mm): 48 ft
- Hard sheet (3 mm): 48 ft
- Thermocol sheet: 2×4 ft
- Aluminum metal sheet: 2×4 ft
- Rubber pipe (10 mm): 5 ft
- Transparent plastic sheet: 2×4 ft
- Metal wire
- Iron nails: 1/2 inch
- Screws: 1.5 inch
- Tube bender
- Cementex glue
- Black matte paint
Steps of Construction
- First we will make rectangular wooden frame of 2×4 ft using 2×3/4 inch wooden strips. The frame is then supported at three different places using 1×1 inch wooden strip.
- The wooden hard sheet is fixed over the frame so to provide a firm base.
- We will fix the thermocol sheet over it as insulation so to avoid heat losses.
- The next step is to fix metal sheet on it.
- The second part of the geyser is it's heat exchanger, we will make it using aluminum pipe and tube bender to bend the pipe in U shape.
- Rubber pipe joins the two parts of exchanger since we have to join four aluminum pipes.
- We will fix exchanger to the frame using metal wire hence keeping it at one place.
- Paint all the surface with black matte paint including exchanger pipes.
- Finally we will fix transparent plastic sheet over frame with cementex glue firmly.
- The Home made Solar water heater is now ready, the whole schematic may seems like following:
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