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Making of DIY Biogas Plant, Anaerobic Digester Experiment

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Habbab Idrees, Sana, and HasanBiogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) Experiment Habbab Idrees, Sana, and HasanBiogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) Experiment Pakistan Science Club

Making of DIY Biogas Plant, Anaerobic Digester Experiment

Concept

The purpose of this project is to discover ways to produce Biogas with alternate sources by using our local resources this project can help students to basics of Anaerobic digestion and production of bio-gas by different organic wastage, basic task is to design, fabricate, and test a simple waste digester and gas collection system.With this system you can examine various facets of the anaerobic digestion process.

Background Information

What is biogas?

Biogas, known as a sour ce of renewable energy, is made mostly of methane. (60-70%) Biogas, as known by many scientific as sociations and universities, is made from a mixture of CH4 (metha ne), CO2 (carbon dioxide), H2S (hydrogen sulfide), NH3 (ammonia), and SO2( sulfur dioxide). This gas is formed when biological matter (usually cow manure), is decomposed in an environment with no oxygen present by bacteria.

Biogas has been popular as a source of energy for over 200 years In order to create In orde r to produce biogas, the individual has to first build an anaerobic (no oxygen present) digester, or an enclosed tank (usually made of steel), where specific types of organic wastes are placed in order for bacteria to decompose them. In the environment, biogas is produced  naturally in deep soils, lake bottoms, and wetlands.

Safety caution !

Since biogas is made mostly of methane, it is highly explosive, and dangerous. There should be no flames or  electrical items around the digester. Some elements and molecules present in biogas can cause suffocation. The digester should be placed in a well-ventilated area. After handli ng the digester or any organic matter, that person should ALWAYS wash his/her hand thoroughly with plenty of soap and water.

Carbon dioxide will asphyxiate  a person if he/she breathes it. Gas produced by rotten egg (H2S) will destroy the lungs and other tissues that serve in smelling.  In order to make an anaerobic digester , biomass is needed. For example, cow manure, grass clipping with soil or any other waste, as long as you use cow manure as a starter, can be used to produce biogas. A digester needs some conditions in order to work properly. For example, there should be a water-biomass ratio of 1 to 5. The pH of this mixture should always remain around 7. An acid or base level will kill the bacteria that causes this gas. A temperature of 0°C to 69°C, although there is a higher production between 29°C and 60°C. Production will be at its peak when it reaches 35°C. The biogas generator should be “fed” daily  a small amount of biomass in order to have enough fresh bacteria to produce large quantities of biogas. After this step, the digester should be agitates (shaken if it is a small bottle) in order to mix the biomass with the water. The recommended time for a home-made project is  a minimum of 2 weeks, when 1/3 of all the biogas production will be made.

 

When using manure from any animal remember: NO ANTIBIOTICS SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THE ANIMAL!!

 

WHAT MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT CAN WE USE?

Your digester may be made up of only the following materials:

  • Digester seed material
  • Digester feed stock
  • 20 liter water can
  • 1/4" plastic tubing -  possible use in gas collection system
  • Medium size Tyre tube for gas storage
  • Tub for mixing water feed stock
  • PVC Pipe 3/4" 2.5 ft
  • T-valve
  • Valve
  • Super glue
  • Fine Sand
  • Soldering Iron
  • Black Color Paint

 

 

biogas digester diagram

Download Biogas Digester Diagram

 

Procedures:

Bio gas plant is a digester and it involves the production of highly combustible methane gas, while constructing a prototype, following prescriptions must be followed.

  • The container that we are using must be air tight, as we know that it’s a digester, that digests the biological waste an aerobically (strictly in the absence of air).
  • Transparent or translucent containers are not to be used for this purpose;if it is transparent it must be painted black because it keeps the temperature steady, if sunlight passes through the container it shall encourage the growth of algae. That is quiet lethal for the production of biogas.
  • Keeping in view that its highly inflammable gas, standard gas fittings must be used in this project. (i.e gas pipes, gas nasals)
  • Animal manure must be used as per containers dimensions, (i.e. in case of 20 l container 18 or 17 l of mixture in ratios of 50% dung and 50%water is prescribed)
  • For the first time. Animal dung must be used later on any biological waste that may include plants waste; dried dung, dried leaves or even paper can be used. But keeping in view that must be mixed in ratio of 50% with water and shaken well.

FEEDING IN THE DIGESTER

  • While feeding in the digester, outlet must stay open so that slurry (digested mixture of dung and water) comes out of outlet.
  • The first production of biogas bring up slowly, so be patient, it may take as long as one complete week to produce gas.
  • Daily one liter of fresh properly mixed biological waste and water in 50% ratio shall be fed in the digester to keep the digester in good working condition.
  • The cheaper, affective and the safer method to store biogas is old tire tube. (i.e. bicycle tire tube or car tire tube as per the dimension of digester)

PRECAUTIONS

  • Avoid the biogas digester from getting in direct contact with sunlight.
  • Avoid it from high temperature variations (Neither too hot, nor too cold )
  • It must not go out of 30C – 40C temperature variations.
  • All safety precautions must be used while testing the biogas, the valve must be faced away while testing the biogas.
  • If results are not found after one week of feeding in biogas digester. Check the pipes for dung or water blockage.

 

Videos Mini Biogas Plant

 

(videos host on YouTube so it can not play in Pakistan)

 

Video: Mini Biogas Plant (Anaerobic Digester) Construction Part 1/3


  • Dung from the animals who are being or were injected antibiotics recently for any reasons are highly discourages.

Video: Mini Biogas Plant (Anaerobic Digester) Construction Part 2/3

Video: Mini Biogas Plant (Anaerobic Digester) Testing Part 3/3

 

 

http://paksc.org/pk/images/stories/forum-logo-2.jpg

 

Photos of Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action

 
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Habab idrees with Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester)
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action

Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action

 

11BUILDING UP A PROTOTYPE BIOGAS PLANT
Bio gas plant is a digester and it involves the production of highly combustible methane gas, while constructing a prototype, following prescriptions must be followed.
•    The container that we are using must be air tight, as we know that it’s a digester, that digests the biological waste an aerobically (strictly in the absence of air).
•    Transparent or translucent containers are not to be used for this purpose; it must be painted black because it keeps the temperature steady, if sunlight passes through the container it shall encourage the growth of algae. That is quiet lethal for the production of biogas.
•    Keeping in view that its highly inflammable gas, standard gas fittings must be used in this project. (i.e gas pipes, gas nasals)
•    Animal manure must be used as per containers dimensions, (i.e. in case of 20 l container 18 or 17 l of mixture in ratios of 50% dung and 50%water is prescribed)
•    For the first time. Animal dung must be used later on any biological waste that may include plants waste; dried dung, dried leaves or even paper can be used. But keeping in view that must be mixed in ratio of 50% with water and shaken well.
FEEDING IN THE DIGESTER
•    While feeding in the digester, outlet must stay open so that slurry (digested mixture of dung and water) comes out of outlet.
•    The first production of biogas bring up slowly, so be patient, it may take as long as one complete week to produce gas.
•    Daily one liter of fresh properly mixed biological waste and water in 50% ratio shall be fed in the digester to keep the digester in good working condition.
¬
•    The cheaper, affective and the safer method to store biogas is old tire tube. (i.e. bicycle tire tube or car tire tube as per the dimension of digester)
PRECAUTIONS
•    Avoid the biogas digester from getting in direct contact with sunlight.
•    Avoid it from high temperature variations (Neither too hot, nor too cold )
•    It must not go out of 30C – 40C temperature variations.
•    All safety precautions must be used while testing the biogas, the valve must be faced away while testing the biogas.
•    If results are not found after one week of feeding in biogas digester. Check the pipes for dung or water blockage.
•    Dung from the animals who are being or were injected antibiotics recently for any reasons are highly discourages.

See Also

  • DIY biomethane
  • DIY Bioreactor
  • Bioreactor experiment
  • Biofuel & Biomass Energy Science Fair Projects & Experiments
  • anaerobic digester design
  • anaerobic digester system patent
  • anaerobic digester definition
  • article anaerobic culture
  • methane digester companies
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32 comments

  • Comment Link Saturday, 20 September 2014 18:47 posted by Muhammad Afzal Khan

    Well Done, Please explain the amount of gas we produce with one 10 kg dung and water filling, May we cook 1 month food for a normal family, Best Regards, Muhammad Afzal Khan

  • Comment Link ABDUL Tuesday, 26 August 2014 11:48 posted by ABDUL

    @ Marian

    Dear Marian

    Thanks for comment I will try to answer your questions.

    1st
    1. Should the input pipe be long until almost reached the bottom of the tank ?
    Ans. yes input pipe should be 2 or 3 inch above at the bottom.

    2. The mixture has to be supplied via input pipe daily ? Can this be let open ? This INLET pipe will be in contact with the oxygen from air, so it is ok ?
    Ans. Yes daily fed is must after feeding you have to close inlet with cap or with other stuff . pipe can be in air there is no effect on gas production

    3. The gas output pipe is fine, i got it how it works and where it will be connected.

    4. The output pipe for the mixture is quite unclear for me. How it works ?
    Ans. output pipe cap only open when you will feeding to digester, outlet pipe use to excrete digester waste.

    In my tank, how should we place it ?
    Ans. your diagram of digester is fine you can make like diagram.


    If it is too low, the mixture will get out.
    I Can not understand this question


    If is too high, the mixture will get air through it and the produced gas will be mixed with O2 and it will not have the desired effect.

    you can also see this link http://paksc.org/pk/biogas-plant-design here is some useful article and videos I hope you will understand

  • Comment Link Tuesday, 26 August 2014 11:29 posted by Marian

    Hello,

    I am writing you from Romania.
    I am looking to build a biogas plant at home and i have looked at some designs on the Internet.
    Before i start building it, i just wanna get cleared with some questions.
    Can you guys help me to build it ?

    Mainly, i have some 300-500 liters tanks made of iron. I have made a design but i am not very sure o it.

    1. Should the input pipe be long until almost reached the bottom of the tank ?
    2. The mixture has to be supplied via input pipe daily ? Can this be let open ? This INLET pipe will be in contact with the oxygen from air, so it is ok ?
    3. The gas output pipe is fine, i got it how it works and where it will be connected.
    4. The output pipe for the mixture is quite unclear for me. How it works ?
    In my tank, how should we place it ?
    If it is too low, the mixture will get out.
    If is too high, the mixture will get air through it and the produced gas will be mixed with O2 and it will not have the desired effect.

    I have seen some designs, where the digester tank is bigger. The tank has the upper side cut and we can fit a smaller cut tank that acts like a gas collector. I don't really understand how this works. The mixture is fed through the input pipe, and the mixture gets the upper tank up. In this case, the upper tank, being smaller than the one from bottom it will leave some margins where the mixture will be in contact with the air. Is this ok ? Can you explain it a bit ?

    How is the outlet pipe working in this case ?
    Basically we have the input and output pipe but also we have the area that is in contact with the air. We can feed the mixture through that side that is in contact with the air and when it will overflow it will send the surpuls of mixture out.
    Can you explain a bit ?

    Looking to hear news from you !

    Thank you and best regards From Romania !

  • Comment Link Sunday, 20 July 2014 11:08 posted by deepak

    very simple and excellent presentation.

  • Comment Link Friday, 25 April 2014 13:15 posted by George Kiama

    I have really learnt alot about Biogas production from the people of Pakistan.I intend to start my own biogas plant.Here in our country Kenya many people do not know about biogas.I will use the knowledge i have gained to help others.Thank you.

  • Comment Link ABDUL Monday, 21 October 2013 06:51 posted by ABDUL

    @Maurice
    yes we have made large one for home use you can visit http://www.paksc.org/pk/our-projects/item/747-small-scale-kitchen-waste-biogas-plant.html
    and I didn't found any problems with smells or H2S or NH3. The temprature of the digester remain constant in winter because I used cotton around the digester for insulation.

  • Comment Link Monday, 21 October 2013 05:30 posted by abdulrauf

    yes "Ian" you can use fruit peel as digester feedstock but it should be blended

  • Comment Link Tuesday, 08 January 2013 12:40 posted by Ian

    can i use it just using a fruit peels like mango?? please answer

  • Comment Link Thursday, 20 December 2012 13:39 posted by Maurice

    A great project, well done. Have any of you installed one of these for home use? Any problems with smells or other gas problems H2S or NH3?
    How have you kept the temperature stable?

  • Comment Link ABDUL Wednesday, 21 November 2012 18:16 posted by ABDUL

    @arslan ali
    20 letter of dung and water fill 4 time Tyre tube, 7 to 10 days required to produce biogas

  • Comment Link ABDUL Wednesday, 21 November 2012 18:12 posted by ABDUL

    @Siti
    the inlet and outlet pipe closed with pipe caps, this caps stops slurry to go back, and gas pressure remain constant.
    Thanks

  • Comment Link Wednesday, 21 November 2012 17:24 posted by Siti

    hello,
    how you stick the plastic tubing to the tyre tube?? what tool you used? i don't know how to make sure the gas didn't go back to the digester?
    im really interested in this experiment, hope you can reply as soon as possible :)

  • Comment Link Wednesday, 21 November 2012 17:22 posted by Siti

    hello,
    how you stick the plastic tubing to the tyre tube?? what tool you used? i don't know how to make sure the gas didn't go back to the digester?
    im really interested in this experiment, hope you can reply as soon as possible :)

  • Comment Link Sunday, 28 October 2012 07:43 posted by Mark Ng

    I am a Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Student in Renewable Energy from Malaysia
    Thank you sharing on how you guys carry out this mini Biogas project
    It really makes me amazed that even teenagers nowadays have brilliant mind
    Keep up the good work!
    Thank you

  • Comment Link Thursday, 25 October 2012 19:42 posted by ewache

    boy, you too much... this is so great. i love it. keep it up. the world is in need of you. thank you... you videos were not in english so i could hardly pick the words. if i may ask. what was the other attached pipes for/,

  • Comment Link Tuesday, 09 October 2012 13:18 posted by Renjan

    excellent idea

  • Comment Link Monday, 17 September 2012 05:30 posted by arslan ali

    hy nice work but i still want to how much gas will produce "quantity of gas?"
    also till how many days the methane produced can be used

  • Comment Link Wednesday, 15 August 2012 19:42 posted by muni raval

    great. thanks a lot for making it easy to understand.

  • Comment Link Friday, 01 June 2012 17:51 posted by imran ali

    i like this brother
    but how much gas it produce

  • Comment Link Sunday, 15 April 2012 17:14 posted by Darmore

    This is very interesting. I am about to work on it,but i didn't understand the issue of the old tube.
    I would be very grateful if i am fed back.

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