Making of DIY Biogas Plant, Anaerobic Digester Experiment

Making of DIY Biogas Plant, Anaerobic Digester Experiment

Making of DIY Biogas Plant, Anaerobic Digester Experiment

Concept

The purpose of this project is to discover ways to produce Biogas with alternate sources by using our local resources this project can help students to basics of Anaerobic digestion and production of bio-gas by different organic wastage, basic task is to design, fabricate, and test a simple waste digester and gas collection system.With this system you can examine various facets of the anaerobic digestion process.

Background Information

What is biogas?

Biogas, known as a sour ce of renewable energy, is made mostly of methane. (60-70%) Biogas, as known by many scientific as sociations and universities, is made from a mixture of CH4 (metha ne), CO2 (carbon dioxide), H2S (hydrogen sulfide), NH3 (ammonia), and SO2( sulfur dioxide). This gas is formed when biological matter (usually cow manure), is decomposed in an environment with no oxygen present by bacteria.

Biogas has been popular as a source of energy for over 200 years In order to create In orde r to produce biogas, the individual has to first build an anaerobic (no oxygen present) digester, or an enclosed tank (usually made of steel), where specific types of organic wastes are placed in order for bacteria to decompose them. In the environment, biogas is produced naturally in deep soils, lake bottoms, and wetlands.

Safety caution !

Since biogas is made mostly of methane, it is highly explosive, and dangerous. There should be no flames or electrical items around the digester. Some elements and molecules present in biogas can cause suffocation. The digester should be placed in a well-ventilated area. After handli ng the digester or any organic matter, that person should ALWAYS wash his/her hand thoroughly with plenty of soap and water.

Carbon dioxide will asphyxiate a person if he/she breathes it. Gas produced by rotten egg (H2S) will destroy the lungs and other tissues that serve in smelling. In order to make an anaerobic digester , biomass is needed. For example, cow manure, grass clipping with soil or any other waste, as long as you use cow manure as a starter, can be used to produce biogas. A digester needs some conditions in order to work properly. For example, there should be a water-biomass ratio of 1 to 5. The pH of this mixture should always remain around 7. An acid or base level will kill the bacteria that causes this gas. A temperature of 0°C to 69°C, although there is a higher production between 29°C and 60°C. Production will be at its peak when it reaches 35°C. The biogas generator should be “fed” daily a small amount of biomass in order to have enough fresh bacteria to produce large quantities of biogas. After this step, the digester should be agitates (shaken if it is a small bottle) in order to mix the biomass with the water. The recommended time for a home-made project is a minimum of 2 weeks, when 1/3 of all the biogas production will be made.

When using manure from any animal remember: NO ANTIBIOTICS SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THE ANIMAL!!

WHAT MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT CAN WE USE?

Your digester may be made up of only the following materials:

  • Digester seed material
  • Digester feed stock
  • 20 liter water can
  • 1/4″ plastic tubing – possible use in gas collection system
  • Medium size Tyre tube for gas storage
  • Tub for mixing water feed stock
  • PVC Pipe 3/4″ 2.5 ft
  • T-valve
  • Valve
  • Super glue
  • Fine Sand
  • Soldering Iron
  • Black Color Paint

biogas digester diagram

Download Biogas Digester Diagram

Procedures:

Bio gas plant is a digester and it involves the production of highly combustible methane gas, while constructing a prototype, following prescriptions must be followed.

  • The container that we are using must be air tight, as we know that it’s a digester, that digests the biological waste an aerobically (strictly in the absence of air).
  • Transparent or translucent containers are not to be used for this purpose;if it is transparent it must be painted black because it keeps the temperature steady, if sunlight passes through the container it shall encourage the growth of algae. That is quiet lethal for the production of biogas.
  • Keeping in view that its highly inflammable gas, standard gas fittings must be used in this project. (i.e gas pipes, gas nasals)
  • Animal manure must be used as per containers dimensions, (i.e. in case of 20 l container 18 or 17 l of mixture in ratios of 50% dung and 50%water is prescribed)
  • For the first time. Animal dung must be used later on any biological waste that may include plants waste; dried dung, dried leaves or even paper can be used. But keeping in view that must be mixed in ratio of 50% with water and shaken well.

FEEDING IN THE DIGESTER

  • While feeding in the digester, outlet must stay open so that slurry (digested mixture of dung and water) comes out of outlet.
  • The first production of biogas bring up slowly, so be patient, it may take as long as one complete week to produce gas.
  • Daily one liter of fresh properly mixed biological waste and water in 50% ratio shall be fed in the digester to keep the digester in good working condition.
  • The cheaper, affective and the safer method to store biogas is old tire tube. (i.e. bicycle tire tube or car tire tube as per the dimension of digester)

PRECAUTIONS

  • Avoid the biogas digester from getting in direct contact with sunlight.
  • Avoid it from high temperature variations (Neither too hot, nor too cold )
  • It must not go out of 30C – 40C temperature variations.
  • All safety precautions must be used while testing the biogas, the valve must be faced away while testing the biogas.
  • If results are not found after one week of feeding in biogas digester. Check the pipes for dung or water blockage.

Videos Mini Biogas Plant

Final Year Projects (FYP)

(videos host on YouTube so it can not play in Pakistan)

Video: Mini Biogas Plant (Anaerobic Digester) Construction Part 1/3


  • Dung from the animals who are being or were injected antibiotics recently for any reasons are highly discourages.

Video: Mini Biogas Plant (Anaerobic Digester) Construction Part 2/3

Video: Mini Biogas Plant (Anaerobic Digester) Testing Part 3/3

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Photos of Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action

Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Habab idrees with Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester)
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action

11BUILDING UP A PROTOTYPE BIOGAS PLANT
Bio gas plant is a digester and it involves the production of highly combustible methane gas, while constructing a prototype, following prescriptions must be followed.
• The container that we are using must be air tight, as we know that it’s a digester, that digests the biological waste an aerobically (strictly in the absence of air).
• Transparent or translucent containers are not to be used for this purpose; it must be painted black because it keeps the temperature steady, if sunlight passes through the container it shall encourage the growth of algae. That is quiet lethal for the production of biogas.
• Keeping in view that its highly inflammable gas, standard gas fittings must be used in this project. (i.e gas pipes, gas nasals)
• Animal manure must be used as per containers dimensions, (i.e. in case of 20 l container 18 or 17 l of mixture in ratios of 50% dung and 50%water is prescribed)
• For the first time. Animal dung must be used later on any biological waste that may include plants waste; dried dung, dried leaves or even paper can be used. But keeping in view that must be mixed in ratio of 50% with water and shaken well.
FEEDING IN THE DIGESTER
• While feeding in the digester, outlet must stay open so that slurry (digested mixture of dung and water) comes out of outlet.
• The first production of biogas bring up slowly, so be patient, it may take as long as one complete week to produce gas.
• Daily one liter of fresh properly mixed biological waste and water in 50% ratio shall be fed in the digester to keep the digester in good working condition.
¬
• The cheaper, affective and the safer method to store biogas is old tire tube. (i.e. bicycle tire tube or car tire tube as per the dimension of digester)
PRECAUTIONS
• Avoid the biogas digester from getting in direct contact with sunlight.
• Avoid it from high temperature variations (Neither too hot, nor too cold )
• It must not go out of 30C – 40C temperature variations.
• All safety precautions must be used while testing the biogas, the valve must be faced away while testing the biogas.
• If results are not found after one week of feeding in biogas digester. Check the pipes for dung or water blockage.
• Dung from the animals who are being or were injected antibiotics recently for any reasons are highly discourages.

See Also

  • DIY biomethane
  • DIY Bioreactor
  • Bioreactor experiment
  • Biofuel & Biomass Energy Science Fair Projects & Experiments
  • anaerobic digester design
  • anaerobic digester system patent
  • anaerobic digester definition
  • article anaerobic culture
  • methane digester companies
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