How to Make Biogas Plant? DIY Anaerobic Digester Experiment

biogas plant digester and tube
biogas plant digester and tube

20-litre bottle as Biogas plant and tire tube used as a gas storage tank

The concept of Biogas Plant, Anaerobic Digester

The purpose of this project is to discover ways to produce Biogas with alternate sources by using our local resources. It can help students to basics of Anaerobic digestion and production of gas by different organic kitchen wastage. The basic task is to design, make, test a simple waste digester and gas collection system. One can check various facets of the anaerobic digestion process.

Background Information Biogas Plant

What is biogas?

It is known as a source of renewable energy and it’s made mostly of methane (60-70%) and a mixture of CO2 (carbon dioxide), H2S (hydrogen sulfide), NH3 (ammonia), and SO2( sulfur dioxide). This gas is formed when biological matter (usually cow manure), is decomposed in an environment with no oxygen present by bacteria.

It has been popular as a source of energy for over 200 years, To produce biogas, the individual has to first build an anaerobic (no oxygen present) digester, or an enclosed tank (usually made of steel), where specific types of organic wastes are placed for bacteria to decompose them. In the environment, it is produced naturally in deep soils, lake bottoms, and wetlands.

Safety caution!

Biogas is mostly consist of methane, it is highly explosive and dangerous. There should be no flames or electrical items around the digester. Some elements and molecules present in biogas can cause suffocation. The digester should be placed in a well-ventilated area. After handling the digester or any organic matter, that person should ALWAYS wash his/her hand thoroughly with plenty of soap and water.

Carbon dioxide will asphyxiate a person if he/she breathes it. Severe H2S can harm the lungs and other tissues involve in breathing. We will need biomass to make an anaerobic digester. For example, cow manure, grass clipping with soil or any other waste, cow manure serves a starter to produce biogas.

A digester needs certain conditions to work properly. For example, there should be a water-biomass ratio of 1 to 5. The pH of this mixture should always stay around 7, acidic or basic pH level will kill the gas-producing bacteria. A temperature of 0°C to 69°C, higher production is between 29°C and 60°C. There will be high production at temperature equals to 35°C.

The small amount of fresh biomass should be added daily to have enough fresh bacteria to produce large quantities of biogas. After this step, agitates the digester (shake well if it is a small bottle) to mix the biomass with the water. The recommended time for a home-made project is a minimum of 2 weeks.

Note: When using manure from any animal remember: ANTIBIOTICS MUST NOT BE GIVEN TO THE ANIMAL!!

How to Make Biogas Plant

Materials And Equipment
    • Digester seed material
    • Digester feed stock Animal dung, vegetables)
    • 20-litre water can
    • 1/4″ plastic tubing – possible use in the gas collection system
    • Medium size Tyre tube for gas storage
    • Tub for mixing water feedstock
    • PVC Pipe 3/4″ 2.5 ft
    • T-valve
    • Valve
    • Super Glue
    • Fine Sand
    • Soldering Iron
    • Black Color Paint
  •  
Biogas plant digester diagram
Biogas plant digester diagram
biogas digester diagram
Download biogas digester diagram

Download Biogas Digester Diagram

Procedure:

Make the biogas digester according to the diagram, if you can not understand so you can watch following video (Note the video is in Urdu language but you can turn on the subtitle.


Few Photos during biogas plant construction in 2012

Hassan, Habab and Sana
Hassan, Habab and Sana
Hassan, Habab Hina and Sana
Hassan, Habab Hina and Sana with the biogas plant
Making hole in bottle
Making a hole in the bottle
Habab making hole in bottle with hot soldiering iron
Habab making hole in bottle with hot soldiering iron
Habab making hole in bottle with hot soldiering iron
Habab making hole in bottle with hot soldiering iron
Hassan making hole in bottle with hot soldiering iron
Hassan making hole in the bottle with a hot soldering iron

Important Note:

The biogas plant is a digester and it involves the production of highly combustible methane gas while constructing a prototype, keep in mind the following precautions

  • The container must be airtight, as we know that it’s a digester, that digests the biological waste anaerobically (strictly in the absence of air).
  • Do not use transparent or translucent containers. If it is transparent, paint it black because it keeps the temperature steady, sunlight encourages the growth of algae which retards biogas production.
  • Use standard gas fittings (i.e gas pipes, gas nosels) as it is a highly flammable gas
  • Use animal manure per container’s dimensions, (i.e. in case of 20 l container 18 or 17 l of a mixture in ratios of 50% dung and 50% water is prescribed)
  • For the first time. use animal dung after any other biological waste that may include plants waste; dried dung, dried leaves, paper etc. But keeping in view that must be mixed in a ratio of 50% with water and shaken well.

Watch a video tutorial of this Biogas Plant 

biogas plant digester and tube
20-litre bottle as Biogas plant and tire tube used as a gas storage tank
20 litter bottle as Biogas plant
20-litre bottle as Biogas plant
biogas plant storage by tyre tube
biogas plant storage by tire tube

FEEDING IN THE DIGESTER

  • Leave the outlet open while feeding in the digester so that slurry (the digested mixture of dung and water) comes out of the outlet.
  • The first production of biogas bring up slowly, so be patient, it may take as long as one complete week to produce gas.
  • Add one litre of fresh feed consisting of biological waste and water in 50% ratio to the digester to keep it in good working condition.
  • The cheaper, effective and the safer method to store biogas is old tire tube. (i.e. bicycle tire tube or car tire tube as per the dimension of digester)

PRECAUTIONS

  • Avoid the biogas digester from getting in direct contact with sunlight.
  • Avoid it from high-temperature variations (Neither too hot, nor too cold )
  • It must not go out of 30C – 40C temperature variations.
  • Use all safety precautions when testing the biogas, must keep the valve face away while testing the biogas.
  • If you do not find any results after one week of feeding in a biogas digester. Check the pipes for dung or water blockage.
  • Dung from the animals who are being or were injected antibiotics recently for any reasons is highly harmful.

 Video: Science Project DIY Biogas Plant (Anaerobic Digester) Construction

Photos of Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action

 
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
 
Habab idrees with Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester)
Habab idrees with Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester)
 
 
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action
Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) in action

BUILDING UP A PROTOTYPE BIOGAS PLANT

The biogas plant is a digester and it involves the production of highly combustible methane gas while constructing a prototype, following prescriptions must be followed.

  •  The container that we are using must be airtight, as we know that it’s a digester, that digests the biological waste anaerobically (strictly in the absence of air).
  •  Transparent or translucent containers are not to be used for this purpose; it must be painted black because it keeps the temperature steady if sunlight passes through the container it shall encourage the growth of algae. That is quite lethal for the production of biogas.
  • Keeping in view that its highly inflammable gas, standard gas fittings must be used in this project. (i.e gas pipes, gas nasals)
  • Animal manure must be used as per containers dimensions, (i.e. in case of 20 l container 18 or 17 l of the mixture in ratios of 50% dung and 50%water is prescribed)
  • For the first time. Animal dung must be used later on any biological waste that may include plants waste; dried dung, dried leaves or even paper can be used. But keeping in view that must be mixed in a ratio of 50% with water and shaken well.

FEEDING IN THE DIGESTER

  • While feeding in the digester, the outlet must stay open so that slurry (the digested mixture of dung and water) comes out of the outlet.
  • The first production of biogas bring up slowly, so be patient, it may take as long as one complete week to produce gas.
  • Daily one litre of fresh properly mixed biological waste and water in 50% ratio shall be fed in the digester to keep the digester in good working condition.
  • The cheaper, effective and the safer method to store gas is old tire tube. (i.e. bicycle tire tube or car tire tube as per the dimension of digester)

PRECAUTIONS

  • Avoid the biogas digester from getting in direct contact with sunlight.
  • Avoid it from high-temperature variations (Neither too hot, nor too cold )
  • It must not go out of 30C – 40C temperature variations.
  • Use all safety precautions when testing the biogas, must keep the valve face away while testing the biogas.
  • If you do not find any results after one week of feeding in a biogas digester. Check the pipes for dung or water blockage.
  • Dung from the animals who are being or were injected antibiotics recently for any reasons is highly harmful.

See Also

Please Feel free to ask any this about this project

Biogas plant construction in Urdu | Biogas Plant ki Tameer

Some common FAQ Biogas Plant:

  • Is the cow manure dry or wet?
  • For how long can a car tire-tube bio-gas be used and for such water can
  • What is the role of both pipe?

please visit for the answer https://paksc.org/community/groups/do-science-help

Gobar Gas Plant
After 7 to 8 years we build a video tutorial about the construction of biogas or gobar gas plant. This time we are using a 60-liter plastic drum or container. Video link New Biogas Gobar Gas Plant Video Tutorial

Abdul Rauf

Teacher, Innovator, Love to create, explore new ways to view & imagine things and then make them real
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[…] More Detail. Here Biogas plant (Anaerobic Digester) Experiment […]

your moma
5 months ago

why? because of you I need to read all of this >:v
But still it’s a good job

Last edited 5 months ago by your moma
shafey
6 months ago

excellent job dear

Ali Nadeem
6 months ago

Excellent project

shafey
6 months ago

excellent project

Umesh Prajapati
2 years ago

Hi Abdul, I used fresh cow dung in my experiment as you answered me on youtube. It was all successful and produces a good quantity of methan. I also tried vegetable peels and kitchen wast mixed with outflow of fermented cow dung. It produces something but this time it is not burning. Can you explain where am I doing mistakes?

abdul rauf
2 years ago

Cow dung should be wet and the amount of biogas can be calculate with upside down container

ayeza
2 years ago

Can you help me please. How can you calculate the amount of gas produced in a 20 L bottle? If i will be having 18 L of 1:1 ratio of water and cow dung?

And is the cow dang used wet or dry?

paul
2 years ago

please tell me how long does it last when i make the same biogas plant using animal manure and food wastes (pls separate the two)

Abdul Rauf
3 years ago

please do comments if you have any question?

Prince Sheraz
5 years ago

please tell me how much gas will produce in 200 litter tank andalso tell me that how much kg/g in one 1 cubic meter thankxxxx